The Challenge 2050 Project at the University of Florida

We believe in the power of human beings to change the world for the better. Aware, connected, creative human beings make innovative and inspired decisions. We cultivate the capacity for adaptive leadership and social responsibility in the next generation of global change-makers.

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Resources for the challenge.

Interested in learning more about the issues? Seeking inspiration, or a "30,000-ft" perspective on humanity? This list is a great place to start. These resources reflect the knowledge & understanding we believe our students should have upon graduation from the Global Leadership & Change certificate program.
Disclaimer: The following list does not represent the official views of the Challenge 2050 Project or the University of Florida. It is a merely a list of resources to provide perspective in developing solutions to address the potential problems of overpopulation.

Economics

When Helping Hurts: How to Alleviate Poverty Without Hurting the Poor-- and Yourself
(Corbett & Fikkert, 2009)

Corbett and Fikkert strive to combat misconceptions surrounding the source, manifestations, and solutions to poverty. This book provides powerful perspectives in understanding how current efforts to alleviate poverty through foreign aid are potentially doing more harm than good.
Corbett and Fikkert strive to combat misconceptions surrounding the source, manifestations, and solutions to poverty. This book provides powerful perspectives in understanding how current efforts to alleviate poverty through foreign aid are potentially doing more harm than good.

Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is A Better Way for Africa
(Dambisa Moyo, 2009)

Moyo challenges the prevailing wisdom that foreign aid is necessary to relieve poverty in the developing world. Through scholarly analysis, she notes that economic growth has declined and poverty rates have skyrocketed across Africa after decades of substantial foreign aid. The book argues that private sector investment and free market solutions are key to addressing poverty in the developing world.
Moyo challenges the prevailing wisdom that foreign aid is necessary to relieve poverty in the developing world. Through scholarly analysis, she notes that economic growth has declined and poverty rates have skyrocketed across Africa after decades of substantial foreign aid. The book argues that private sector investment and free market solutions are key to addressing poverty in the developing world.

Education

Experience & Education
(John Dewey, 1997)

Dewey, known as the father of the American educational system, shares his educational philosophy in concise form. The author notes that traditional and progressive educational models are inadequate in promoting effective student learning. Dewey instead asserts that educators must facilitate student learning by considering student perspectives and providing teaching materials that create an educative experience.
Dewey, known as the father of the American educational system, shares his educational philosophy in concise form. The author notes that traditional and progressive educational models are inadequate in promoting effective student learning. Dewey instead asserts that educators must facilitate student learning by considering student perspectives and providing teaching materials that create an educative experience.

Education for Critical Consciousness
(Paulo Freire, 1994)

Freire attempts to promote human equality through a better understanding of education. In his book, the author argues that educators must begin at the current point of the pupil’s life situation. The book then provides methods for raising the consciousness of the pupil as well as overcoming obstacles.
Freire attempts to promote human equality through a better understanding of education. In his book, the author argues that educators must begin at the current point of the pupil’s life situation. The book then provides methods for raising the consciousness of the pupil as well as overcoming obstacles.

Pedagogy of the Oppressed
(Paulo Freire, 1996)

Freire declares that education should seek to make pupils as co-creators of knowledge. He asserts that traditional “banking” approaches to education are dehumanizing to both educators and pupils. Additionally, the text notes the possible application of dialogics as a means of promoting social justice.
Freire declares that education should seek to make pupils as co-creators of knowledge. He asserts that traditional “banking” approaches to education are dehumanizing to both educators and pupils. Additionally, the text notes the possible application of dialogics as a means of promoting social justice.

Teaching Community: A Pedagogy of Hope
(bell hooks, 2003)

Hooks strives to promote the concept that teaching can take place under any circumstance. This book provides an overview for creating authentic community through the channeling of values such as love, service, and respect. The author asserts that these concepts are key to promote progressive cultural change.
Hooks strives to promote the concept that teaching can take place under any circumstance. This book provides an overview for creating authentic community through the channeling of values such as love, service, and respect. The author asserts that these concepts are key to promote progressive cultural change.

Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom
(bell hooks, 1994)

Hooks advocates for the idea of education as freedom. Through her principles, she seeks to transgress against racial, sexual, and class boundaries to promote free thinking. This book attempts to help bridge the gap between practical knowledge and pupil emotions to encourage a new method of teaching.
Hooks advocates for the idea of education as freedom. Through her principles, she seeks to transgress against racial, sexual, and class boundaries to promote free thinking. This book attempts to help bridge the gap between practical knowledge and pupil emotions to encourage a new method of teaching.

Essays

The New Population Boom Could Easily Be a Dud
(Nicholas Eberstadt, 2014)

Eberstadt provides a rebuttal of the conventional wisdom regarding rapid population growth in the 21st Century. The author notes that leading studies do not offer explanations for the rapid drop in fertility levels in East Asia over the past 50 years. The article asserts that a similar trend could take place in Sub-Saharan Africa, thus significantly curtailing population growth.
Eberstadt provides a rebuttal of the conventional wisdom regarding rapid population growth in the 21st Century. The author notes that leading studies do not offer explanations for the rapid drop in fertility levels in East Asia over the past 50 years. The article asserts that a similar trend could take place in Sub-Saharan Africa, thus significantly curtailing population growth.

Population Decline and the Great Economic Reversal
(George Friedman, 2015)

Friedman notes the primary drivers of population decline as nations develop economically. The author asserts that as a nation’s population declines and GDP remains constant, per capita GDP and standard of living will actually increase. Additionally, he notes the shortage of labor in coming decades could cause a reversal in the current economic situation where labor is cheaper than capital.
Friedman notes the primary drivers of population decline as nations develop economically. The author asserts that as a nation’s population declines and GDP remains constant, per capita GDP and standard of living will actually increase. Additionally, he notes the shortage of labor in coming decades could cause a reversal in the current economic situation where labor is cheaper than capital.

Suicide By Drought
(Sulmaan Khan, 2014)

Khan provides an analysis detailing the difficulty China faces in maintaining an ample supply of clean water for its industries and people. The article documents that due to decades of environmental unsound practices, much of China’s water supplies are heavily contaminated by pollution. Furthermore, the author notes that unsound infrastructure plans by the Chinese government threaten to exacerbate existing and future water problems.
Khan provides an analysis detailing the difficulty China faces in maintaining an ample supply of clean water for its industries and people. The article documents that due to decades of environmental unsound practices, much of China’s water supplies are heavily contaminated by pollution. Furthermore, the author notes that unsound infrastructure plans by the Chinese government threaten to exacerbate existing and future water problems.

How Biofuels Could Starve the Poor
(Runge & Senauer, 2007)

Ford and Senauer argue that biofuels, particularly those derived from food crops, contribute to global food insecurity. The article notes this is due to the fact that ethanol removes food from the world market, thus increasing its price. Additionally, the authors briefly reflect upon the potential environmental impacts of widespread biofuel production.
Ford and Senauer argue that biofuels, particularly those derived from food crops, contribute to global food insecurity. The article notes this is due to the fact that ethanol removes food from the world market, thus increasing its price. Additionally, the authors briefly reflect upon the potential environmental impacts of widespread biofuel production.

The Age of Entropy
(Radall L. Schweller, 2014)

According to Schweller, the world is transitioning towards a greater state of anarchy. However, the article notes this future will not result in dystopia or utopia. The author believes that this new era will be full of uncertainty and instability but will lack the destructive potential of another world war or global depression.
According to Schweller, the world is transitioning towards a greater state of anarchy. However, the article notes this future will not result in dystopia or utopia. The author believes that this new era will be full of uncertainty and instability but will lack the destructive potential of another world war or global depression.

A Globalized God
(Scott M. Thomas, 2010)

Thomas notes that the number of religious adherents is increasing around the world. Specifically, the essay documents the rise of Islam and Christianity in geostrategic regions across the globe. The author believes that religion will supplant ideology as a major determinant of alliances in the 21st Century.
Thomas notes that the number of religious adherents is increasing around the world. Specifically, the essay documents the rise of Islam and Christianity in geostrategic regions across the globe. The author believes that religion will supplant ideology as a major determinant of alliances in the 21st Century.

Foreign Policy

The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century
(George Friedman, 2009)

George Friedman’s book provides an overview of global demographic, economic, and technological trends that will shape American power in the 21st Century. His book also attempts to project possible geopolitical events that will occur in the coming decades. These events include a second cold war with Russia, the fragmentation of China, and the emergence of Turkey as a global power.
George Friedman’s book provides an overview of global demographic, economic, and technological trends that will shape American power in the 21st Century. His book also attempts to project possible geopolitical events that will occur in the coming decades. These events include a second cold war with Russia, the fragmentation of China, and the emergence of Turkey as a global power.

Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need A Green Revolution-- and How It Can Renew America
(Thomas L. Friedman, 2009)

In his book, Thomas Friedman argues that global warming, human population growth, and an emergent global middle class is resulting in a world that is hot, flat, and crowded. To mitigate these challenges, the author believe that the United States must undergo nation building at home to implement a new green energy economy. The book also provides a roadmap of potential solutions to implement greener forms of energy production.
In his book, Thomas Friedman argues that global warming, human population growth, and an emergent global middle class is resulting in a world that is hot, flat, and crowded. To mitigate these challenges, the author believe that the United States must undergo nation building at home to implement a new green energy economy. The book also provides a roadmap of potential solutions to implement greener forms of energy production.

The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century
(Thomas L. Friedman, 2005)

Thomas L. Friedman argues that due to the globalization, the competitive landscape of business is changing dramatically. Consequently, the removal of barriers to trade is causing the world to become flatter. This book outlines what the author asserts are the ten flatteners driving the creation of a more competitive global economy.
Thomas L. Friedman argues that due to the globalization, the competitive landscape of business is changing dramatically. Consequently, the removal of barriers to trade is causing the world to become flatter. This book outlines what the author asserts are the ten flatteners driving the creation of a more competitive global economy.

The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order
(Samuel P. Huntington, 2011)

Huntington attempts to depict a possible post-Cold War world in which the world’s alliances are dictated according to a state’s civilizational affinity. The author argues that this is the direct result of rising non-Western powers such as China, India, and Turkey. This book provides an overview of important religious such as Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism.
Huntington attempts to depict a possible post-Cold War world in which the world’s alliances are dictated according to a state’s civilizational affinity. The author argues that this is the direct result of rising non-Western powers such as China, India, and Turkey. This book provides an overview of important religious such as Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism.

The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War
(Robert D. Kaplan, 2000)

In this collection of essays, Kaplan provides a pessimistic view of humanity in the 21st Century. Stressing the importance of realist political thought, the author argues for a reassessment of America’s foreign policy commitments. Kaplan also notes the hidden dangers regarding the idea of a universal peace.
In this collection of essays, Kaplan provides a pessimistic view of humanity in the 21st Century. Stressing the importance of realist political thought, the author argues for a reassessment of America’s foreign policy commitments. Kaplan also notes the hidden dangers regarding the idea of a universal peace.

The Revenge of Geography: What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate
(Robert D. Kaplan, 2012)

Kaplan’s book begins by deliberating the philosophical aspects of realist and idealist political theory. He uses this discussion to introduce the concept of geography as a major determinant of a state’s culture, political system, and national power. The book provides an historical and geographical overview of regions such as the Indian Subcontinent, the Iranian Plateau, and the Eurasian Steppes.
Kaplan’s book begins by deliberating the philosophical aspects of realist and idealist political theory. He uses this discussion to introduce the concept of geography as a major determinant of a state’s culture, political system, and national power. The book provides an historical and geographical overview of regions such as the Indian Subcontinent, the Iranian Plateau, and the Eurasian Steppes.

Government Report

Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds
(National Intelligence Council, 2012)

Global Trends 2030 attempts to provide a framework for understanding the changes that humanity’s key systems will undergo in the next fifteen years. The report projects possible futures for human civilization by calculating the impacts of megatrends such as climate change, population growth, and economic development. This document also notes the impact of game changers such as technological innovations, governance gaps, and regional instability.
Global Trends 2030 attempts to provide a framework for understanding the changes that humanity’s key systems will undergo in the next fifteen years. The report projects possible futures for human civilization by calculating the impacts of megatrends such as climate change, population growth, and economic development. This document also notes the impact of game changers such as technological innovations, governance gaps, and regional instability.

History

The Hungry World: America's Cold War Battle Against Poverty in Asia
(Nick Cullather, 2010)

Cullather tells the unfamiliar story of American efforts to combat communism in Asia by promoting economic and agricultural development. According to the author, American political leaders believed that addressing poverty and food insecurity was crucial to winning the Cold War. Furthermore, the books notes that this massive development effort continues to impact the geopolitics of Asia in the 21st Century.
Cullather tells the unfamiliar story of American efforts to combat communism in Asia by promoting economic and agricultural development. According to the author, American political leaders believed that addressing poverty and food insecurity was crucial to winning the Cold War. Furthermore, the books notes that this massive development effort continues to impact the geopolitics of Asia in the 21st Century.

Dangerous Nation: America's Place in the World
(Robert Kagan, 2006)

Kagan attempts to dispel the myth that American was traditionally an isolationist power. This book provides an overview of U.S. foreign policy from her colonial days until the early 20th Century.  Utilizing primary source documents such as letters, speeches, and government documents, Kagan notes that from the beginning, America has pursued an ambitious geopolitical mission of achieving global dominance.
Kagan attempts to dispel the myth that American was traditionally an isolationist power. This book provides an overview of U.S. foreign policy from her colonial days until the early 20th Century. Utilizing primary source documents such as letters, speeches, and government documents, Kagan notes that from the beginning, America has pursued an ambitious geopolitical mission of achieving global dominance.

The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire
(William S. Maltby, 2009)

Maltby provides a concise summary of the Spanish Empire’s bureaucratic, economic, and military institutions. This analysis includes a historical overview of Spain’s rules under Ferdinand and Isabella, the Hapsburgs, and Bourbons. The author also attempts to dispel modern misconceptions of regarding Spanish cruelty, greed, and tyranny.
Maltby provides a concise summary of the Spanish Empire’s bureaucratic, economic, and military institutions. This analysis includes a historical overview of Spain’s rules under Ferdinand and Isabella, the Hapsburgs, and Bourbons. The author also attempts to dispel modern misconceptions of regarding Spanish cruelty, greed, and tyranny.

John Adams
(David McCullough, 2001)

McCullough provides a compelling biography of one of America’s leading Founding Fathers, John Adams. A patriot from Boston, Adams served not only as Second President of the United States but also as diplomat to France, Spain, and Britain during the Revolutionary War. Additionally, the book depicts Adams’ loving relationship with his wife, Abigail Adams.
McCullough provides a compelling biography of one of America’s leading Founding Fathers, John Adams. A patriot from Boston, Adams served not only as Second President of the United States but also as diplomat to France, Spain, and Britain during the Revolutionary War. Additionally, the book depicts Adams’ loving relationship with his wife, Abigail Adams.

A People's History of the U.S.
(Howard Zinn, 2005)

Although most historians tell their stories through the eyes of the elite, Zinn breaks from this historical tradition by attempting to tell the story of America through the eyes of the common people. This scholarly work includes narratives from African Americans, Native Americans, and women to depict life during America’s formation, development, and maturation as a world power. Ultimately, this populist account provides clear insights into the lives of the ordinary Americans throughout history.
Although most historians tell their stories through the eyes of the elite, Zinn breaks from this historical tradition by attempting to tell the story of America through the eyes of the common people. This scholarly work includes narratives from African Americans, Native Americans, and women to depict life during America’s formation, development, and maturation as a world power. Ultimately, this populist account provides clear insights into the lives of the ordinary Americans throughout history.

Leadership

How to Win Friends and Influence People
(Dale Carnegie, 1981)

Carnegie believed that 85 percent of financial success was due to interpersonal skills such as leadership, communication, and charisma. This time-tested book shares the author’s knowledge and provides helpful tips on being a leader, winning people over, and handling difficult people. A must read for individuals interested in developing their interpersonal skills.
Carnegie believed that 85 percent of financial success was due to interpersonal skills such as leadership, communication, and charisma. This time-tested book shares the author’s knowledge and provides helpful tips on being a leader, winning people over, and handling difficult people. A must read for individuals interested in developing their interpersonal skills.

Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap--and Others Don't
(Jim Collins, 2001)

Through his extensive research, Collins strives to identify important characteristics that help an organization transition from good to great. The author notes seven ideas such as Level 5 Leadership, the hedgehog concept, and the flywheel as important determinants of an organization’s success. This book provides practical advices to leaders attempting to achieve great organizational success.
Through his extensive research, Collins strives to identify important characteristics that help an organization transition from good to great. The author notes seven ideas such as Level 5 Leadership, the hedgehog concept, and the flywheel as important determinants of an organization’s success. This book provides practical advices to leaders attempting to achieve great organizational success.

The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic
(Stephen Covey, 1989)

Covey documents the seven simple habits that successful leaders implement in their daily lives. The book breaks down the habits into three overarching concepts: independence, interdependence, and continuous improvements. The author also notes the importance of considering differing perspectives in order to achieve success as a leader.
Covey documents the seven simple habits that successful leaders implement in their daily lives. The book breaks down the habits into three overarching concepts: independence, interdependence, and continuous improvements. The author also notes the importance of considering differing perspectives in order to achieve success as a leader.

Thinking in Systems: A Primer
(Donella Meadows, 2008)

Meadows introduces the idea of systems thinking as a means to explain social problems around the world. According to the author, breakdown of key systems such as agriculture, economy, and government result in catastrophes such as famine, poverty, and war. The book seeks to teach readers to consider the complexity of global systems, the interactions between systems, and the drivers of systems as a means to create lasting global change.
Meadows introduces the idea of systems thinking as a means to explain social problems around the world. According to the author, breakdown of key systems such as agriculture, economy, and government result in catastrophes such as famine, poverty, and war. The book seeks to teach readers to consider the complexity of global systems, the interactions between systems, and the drivers of systems as a means to create lasting global change.

Literature

Brave New World
(Aldous Huxley, 1946)

Huxley depicts a portrayal of a futuristic world without war, poverty, or sickness. Through radical eugenics, psychological conditioning, and synthetic drugs, humanity created the perfect society. This chilling portrayal of a utopian future forces readers to consider the moral and ethical costs of attempting to engineer the perfect human society.
Huxley depicts a portrayal of a futuristic world without war, poverty, or sickness. Through radical eugenics, psychological conditioning, and synthetic drugs, humanity created the perfect society. This chilling portrayal of a utopian future forces readers to consider the moral and ethical costs of attempting to engineer the perfect human society.

Animal Farm
(George Orwell, 1954)

Using barnyard animals as main characters, Orwell retells the events of the Russian communist revolution as well as Stalin’s brutal rise to power. The author conveys the triumphs, failures, and hardships of the revolution as the barnyard animals attempt to run a farm free of human interference. Additionally, Orwell notes the tactics and strategy Stalin employed to ensure dominance over the Russian people following the communist revolution.
Using barnyard animals as main characters, Orwell retells the events of the Russian communist revolution as well as Stalin’s brutal rise to power. The author conveys the triumphs, failures, and hardships of the revolution as the barnyard animals attempt to run a farm free of human interference. Additionally, Orwell notes the tactics and strategy Stalin employed to ensure dominance over the Russian people following the communist revolution.

1984
(George Orwell, 1950)

In his masterpiece, Orwell portrays a bleak, dystopian world ruled by an iron-fisted, totalitarian government. The book provides key insights on the internal operations of a tyrannical regime as it systematically suppresses, alters, and fabricates truth. This work has a lasting cultural influence through its introduction of concepts such as Thought Police, thought crime, and Big Brother into the modern lexicon.
In his masterpiece, Orwell portrays a bleak, dystopian world ruled by an iron-fisted, totalitarian government. The book provides key insights on the internal operations of a tyrannical regime as it systematically suppresses, alters, and fabricates truth. This work has a lasting cultural influence through its introduction of concepts such as Thought Police, thought crime, and Big Brother into the modern lexicon.

Philosophy

The End of History and the Last Man
(Francis Fukuyama, 1992)

Fukuyama makes the philosophical case for proclaiming liberal democracy as the final form of human governance. In crafting his arguments, the author provides a philosophical overview of Western political and social thought. Additionally, Fukuyama notes potential threats to democratic governance from both the left and the right of the political spectrum.
Fukuyama makes the philosophical case for proclaiming liberal democracy as the final form of human governance. In crafting his arguments, the author provides a philosophical overview of Western political and social thought. Additionally, Fukuyama notes potential threats to democratic governance from both the left and the right of the political spectrum.

The Abolition of Man
(C.S. Lewis, 1944)

In The Abolition of Man, Or, Reflections on Education with Special Reference to the Teaching of English in the Upper Forms of Schools, Lewis attempts to warn of the dangers of relativism by noting the importance of virtue, or the Tao. According the author, humanity is ruled by reason representing the head, instinct representing the belly, and virtue representing the chest. Furthermore, it is virtue which regulates the interaction between reason and instinct. Thus, in the book’s conclusion, Lewis argues that by abolishing virtue humanity is abolishing itself.
In The Abolition of Man, Or, Reflections on Education with Special Reference to the Teaching of English in the Upper Forms of Schools, Lewis attempts to warn of the dangers of relativism by noting the importance of virtue, or the Tao. According the author, humanity is ruled by reason representing the head, instinct representing the belly, and virtue representing the chest. Furthermore, it is virtue which regulates the interaction between reason and instinct. Thus, in the book’s conclusion, Lewis argues that by abolishing virtue humanity is abolishing itself.

The Prince
(Niccolò Machiavelli, 1532)

Machiavelli provides political advice to would-be Italian princes. Utilizing his vast knowledge of ancient and contemporary events, the author attempts to depict what he believes is a realistic view of leadership. Breaking with tradition of the time, the author notes “it is safer to be feared than to be loved.” Furthermore, Machiavelli makes the philosophical case for judging policies based on their results and not by their intentions.
Machiavelli provides political advice to would-be Italian princes. Utilizing his vast knowledge of ancient and contemporary events, the author attempts to depict what he believes is a realistic view of leadership. Breaking with tradition of the time, the author notes “it is safer to be feared than to be loved.” Furthermore, Machiavelli makes the philosophical case for judging policies based on their results and not by their intentions.

Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics
(Reinhold Niebuhr, 1930)

In his most famous work, Niebuhr provides a tragic view of human nature and social structures. According to the author, individual morality ultimately results in collective immorality. Consequently, political and social conflict, although possible to mitigate, is inevitable.
In his most famous work, Niebuhr provides a tragic view of human nature and social structures. According to the author, individual morality ultimately results in collective immorality. Consequently, political and social conflict, although possible to mitigate, is inevitable.

The Art of War
(Sun Tzu, 5th century B.C.)

Sun Tzu’s maxims for conducting successful military campaigns have deeply influenced leaders in government, business, and sports. These simple, yet effective concepts provide insights for leaders to plan strategically, gather intelligence, and organize institutions. Additionally, this text provides historical references to Chinese warfare and political events.
Sun Tzu’s maxims for conducting successful military campaigns have deeply influenced leaders in government, business, and sports. These simple, yet effective concepts provide insights for leaders to plan strategically, gather intelligence, and organize institutions. Additionally, this text provides historical references to Chinese warfare and political events.

Speeches

"What to the Slave Is the 4th of July?"
(Frederick Douglass - July 4, 1852)

Douglass notes the historical, philosophical, and political origins surrounding the Fourth of July. He then contrasts the ideals of the Declaration of Independence with the harsh reality of American slavery. Douglass points out the blatant hypocrisy of America’s leaders and calls for the emancipation of slaves.
Douglass notes the historical, philosophical, and political origins surrounding the Fourth of July. He then contrasts the ideals of the Declaration of Independence with the harsh reality of American slavery. Douglass points out the blatant hypocrisy of America’s leaders and calls for the emancipation of slaves.

"Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death"
(Patrick Henry - Mar. 23, 1775)

Henry’s famous speech was the early rally cry of American colonists opposing the perceived tyranny of British Crown. The speech notes the instances of British oppression regarding the stationing of British troops in colonial homes in Boston, taxation without representation, and the Boston Massacre. At the speech’s climax, the orator appeals to his listeners to resist British tyranny and openly rebel against the Crown.
Henry’s famous speech was the early rally cry of American colonists opposing the perceived tyranny of British Crown. The speech notes the instances of British oppression regarding the stationing of British troops in colonial homes in Boston, taxation without representation, and the Boston Massacre. At the speech’s climax, the orator appeals to his listeners to resist British tyranny and openly rebel against the Crown.

"I Have A Dream"
(Martin Luther King, Jr. - Aug. 28, 1963)

MLK’s famous speech is widely regarded as one of the defining moments of America’s Civil Rights Movement. This speech clearly depicts the injustices that Black Americans faced on a daily basis in both the Jim Crow South and the ghettos of major Northern cities. MLK sounds the call for racial reconciliation and for the realization of the American Dream for Black Americans.
MLK’s famous speech is widely regarded as one of the defining moments of America’s Civil Rights Movement. This speech clearly depicts the injustices that Black Americans faced on a daily basis in both the Jim Crow South and the ghettos of major Northern cities. MLK sounds the call for racial reconciliation and for the realization of the American Dream for Black Americans.

"The Gettysburg Address"
(Abraham Lincoln - Nov. 19, 1863)

Lincoln’s most famous speech was only 273 words and lasted less than three minutes. Nevertheless, Lincoln’s immortal words managed to encapsulate the significance of the Civil War, the sacrifice of Union soldiers, and values of American government. These words transcend the era and speak truth well into the 21st Century.
Lincoln’s most famous speech was only 273 words and lasted less than three minutes. Nevertheless, Lincoln’s immortal words managed to encapsulate the significance of the Civil War, the sacrifice of Union soldiers, and values of American government. These words transcend the era and speak truth well into the 21st Century.

"On the 40th Anniversary of D-Day"
(Ronald Reagan - Jun. 6, 1984)

Reagan’s tribute to the sacrifices of allied troops at Normandy at the 40th Anniversary of D-Day provide a glimpse into the heroic efforts of men and women to secure the blessing of liberty for the world. Specifically, the speaker notes the heroism of the U.S. Ranger at Pointe Du Hoc in securing important positions overlooking the allied landing sites. Reagan’s words also served as a rally cry in the midst of the Cold War to oppose the tyranny of the Soviet Union.
Reagan’s tribute to the sacrifices of allied troops at Normandy at the 40th Anniversary of D-Day provide a glimpse into the heroic efforts of men and women to secure the blessing of liberty for the world. Specifically, the speaker notes the heroism of the U.S. Ranger at Pointe Du Hoc in securing important positions overlooking the allied landing sites. Reagan’s words also served as a rally cry in the midst of the Cold War to oppose the tyranny of the Soviet Union.

"Washington's Farewell Address"
(George Washington - Sept. 19, 1796)

Washington’s parting words as President provide a historical insight into America’s early development as a nation. Additionally, his words serve as a warning against the vices of permanent foreign entanglements, fractious political parties, and increased governmental power. In order to combat potential political dysfunction, the speaker asserts that the American people should possess a public virtue that is inculcated by religion and morality.
Washington’s parting words as President provide a historical insight into America’s early development as a nation. Additionally, his words serve as a warning against the vices of permanent foreign entanglements, fractious political parties, and increased governmental power. In order to combat potential political dysfunction, the speaker asserts that the American people should possess a public virtue that is inculcated by religion and morality.